How to Cite, Using Footnotes: Using the Chicago Manual of Style

Printed Resources || Non-Printed Media || Archival and Documentary Resources || Textual Footnotes || Online Resources

Printed Resources

How to footnote a book:

        1 Ronald Takaki, Iron Cages: Race and Culture in 19th-Century America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), p. 113.


        2 Ronald Takaki, Iron Cages: Race and Culture in 19th-Century America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), p. 113.

When the book is edited:

        3 Edward Chiera, They Wrote on Clay, ed. George C. Cameron (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1938), p. 42.

How to footnote an essay in a journal:

        4 Samuel M. Thompson, "The Authority of Law," Ethics 75 (October 1964): 16-24.

How to footnote an article in a newspaper:

        5 "Amazing Amazon Region," New York Times, 12 January 1969, sec. 4, p. E11.

Non-Printed Media

How to footnote a radio or television program:

        6 KQED, "The Amazing Mollusk," 17 April 1972.

How to footnote a film:

        7 Lee Tamahori, Director, Once Were Warriors, 1995.

How to footnote a recording (in this case, a song called "Blood Red River," on an album called The Legendary Peg Leg Howell:

        8 Peg Leg Howell, "Blood Red River," The Legendary Peg Leg Howell, 1943, Testament T-2204.

How to footnote a work of art (in this case, a painting):

        9 Larry Calcagno, Landscape, 1970.

Archival and Documentary Resources

How to footnote a document in an archive:

        10 Gen. Joseph C. Castner, "Report to the War Department, 17 January 1927," Modern Military Records Division, Record Group 94, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

        11 Stanley K. Hornbeck, Memorandum on Clarence Gauss, 8 May 1942, Hornbeck Papers, File "Gauss," Hoover Library, Stanford, California.

How to footnote an entire collection in an archive:

        12 Washington, D.C., National Archives, Modern Military Records Division, Record Group 94.

How to footnote a letter written to you:

        13 John Blank, personal letter, 12 February 1994.

How to footnote a letter that is not in an archive:

        14 Alan Cranston, California State Controller, to Maurice Sexton, Sacramento, 22 October 1962, Personal Files of Maurice Sexton, Modesto, California.

How to footnote a document not in an archive:

        15 Morristown (Kansas) Orphan's Home, Minutes of Meetings of the Board of Managers, Meeting of 6 May 1930.

        16 Sidney E. Mead, "Some Eternal Greatness," sermon preached at the Rockefeller Chapel, University of Chicago, 31 July 1960.

How to footnote a dissertation:

        17 O. C. Phillips, Jr., "The Influence of Ovid on Lucan's Bellum civile" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1962), p. 14.

How to footnote an interview:

        18 A. A. Wyler, interview held during meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Pasadena, California, June 1964.

Textual Footnotes

How to add a textual footnote (explaining something in the text):

        19 Detailed evidence of the great increase in the array of goods and services bought as income increases is shown in S. J. Prais and H. S. Houthaker, The Analysis of Family Budgets (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1955), table 5, p. 52.

        20 Ernst Cassirer takes important notice of this in Language and Myth (pp. 59-62), and offers a searching analysis of man's regard for things on which his power of inspirited action may crucially depend. [Since the work has already been cited in full form, page reference only is required.]

        21 In 1962 the premium income received by all voluntary health insurance organizations in the United States was $9.3 billion, while the benefits paid out were $7.1 billion. Health Insurance Institute, Source Book of Health Insurance Data (New York: The Institute, 1963), pp. 36, 46.

        22 Professor D. T. Suzuki brings this out with great clarity in his discussion of "Stopping" and "no-mindedness"; see, e.g., his chapter entitled "Swordsmanship" in Zen Buddhism and Its Influence on Japanese Culture (Kyoto: Eastern Buddhist Society, 1938).

Online Resources

How to footnote a Web page:

        23 Jim Zwick, Anti-Imperialism in the United States, 1898-1935, (May 1997).

For further reference, see:
The Chicago Manual of Style or Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.
The Sarah Bird Askew Library of the William Paterson College of New Jersey's Guide for Citing Electronic Information, a version of Li and Crane's Bibliographic Formats for Citing Electronic Information
Maurice Crouse's Citing Electronic Information in History Papers
Janice R. Walker's MLA-Style Citations of Electronic Sources, Endorsed by the Alliance for Computers & Writing
Mark Wainwright's Citation style for Internet sources

Prepared by Professor Catherine Lavender for courses taught in The Department of History, The College of Staten Island of The City University of New York. Send email to
Last modified: Wednesday 28 April 1999.